What are coronaviruses? Coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. They are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections.
The new coronavirus. At the end of 2019, a new type of coronavirus started spreading in China. This type of coronavirus is often called 2019-nCoV, novel coronavirus, or COVID-19. It is believed that the virus was transmitted from animals to humans. Some of the first cases were diagnosed in people who had visited a market selling live seafood and animals. Unfortunately, when viruses are transmitted from animals to people it can take scientists a lot of time before they can develop a vaccine or medicines to cure it.
How does the virus spread? The virus appears to spread mainly from person to person. The transmission occurs when someone comes into contact with an infected person. For example, a cough, a sneeze or a handshake could cause transmission. The spread may also be caused by coming into contact with something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes.
|virus 病毒 mammal 哺乳动物 respiratory 呼吸的 infection 感染
transmit 传染 case 病例 diagnose 诊断 cure 治愈 occur 发生
1. When were coronaviruses discovered?
A. In the 1960s. B. In the 1970s. C. In the 1980s.
2. Where did the new coronaviruses start spreading at the end of 2019?
A. In China. B. In America. C. All over the world.
3. Is it easy for the doctors to cure COVID-19?
A. Yes, it is. B. No, it isn’t. C. Not mentioned.
4. How many ways are mentioned for the spread of the new coronaviruses?
A. 1 B. 2. C. 3.
【答案】1. A 2. A 3. B 4. B
细节理解题。根据“ Coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s.”可知，冠状病毒是在20世纪60年代发现的。故选A。
细节理解题。根据“At the end of 2019, a new type of coronavirus started spreading in China.”可知，2019年底，新型冠状病毒开始在中国蔓延，故选A。
细节理解题。根据“Unfortunately, when viruses are transmitted from animals to people，it can take scientists a lot of time before they can develop a vaccine or medicines to cure it.”(不幸的是，当病毒从动物传播给人类时，科学家要花很长时间才能研制出治疗病毒的疫苗或药物。)可知，文中提到专家研制治疗病毒的疫苗或药物需要很长时间,故不容易治疗，选B。
|Below is how four students answered their teacher’s question in class.|
|Lily||I like shopping and talking to people. I think I can learn how to do business. Maybe selling clothes is a good business for me.|
|Ryan||My hobbies are playing computer games and making friends online. We often share our funny stories by e-mail. I guess I will learn more about computers and make super-smart computer programs.|
|Bill||My parents have kept lots of pets since I was little. We’ve experienced many things together, good and bad, happy and sad. Those stories have always stayed in my mind. One day, I will share them with people by drawing and writing books.|
|Anna||Though my mom and two sisters are all doctors, I’m sure I will stay as far away from a hospital as I can. I hate being sick, and I’m afraid of seeing sick people looking weak and sad. I’ll keep strong by playing my favorite sport, tennis, every day. One day I’ll join the national team and be another Lina.|
5. What question did the teacher most likely ask in class?
A. What do you like to talk about with your friends?
B. What’s your plan for the coming vacation?
C. What do you want to do in the future?
6. What does the underlined word “them” mean?
A. Pets. B. Stories. C. Books.
7. How will Anna keep strong?
A. She will play tennis every day.
B. She will stay as far away from a hospital as possible.
C. She will join the national team and become another Lina.
8. What do we know from the reading?
A. Lily is good at making clothes.
B. One of Bill’s parents is an animal doctor.
C. Ryan enjoys meeting people on the Internet.
【答案】5. C 6. B 7. A 8. C
推理判断题。根据四位同学的回答Maybe selling clothes is a good business for me；I guess I will learn more about computers and make super-smart computer programs；One day, I will share them with people by drawing and writing books；One day I’ll join the national team and be another Lina，可知Lily将来卖衣服；Ryan想学到更多关于计算机的知识，并制作超级智能的计算机程序；Bill想通过画画和写书来和人们分享他的故事；Anna想有一天加入国家队，成为另一个Lina。由此可推断出老师在问他们将来想干什么，故选C。
词句猜测题。them“它们”指代复数，根据上文Those stories have always stayed in my mind. 那些故事一直留在我的脑海里。可知them指代stories，Bill想通过画画和写书来和人们分享他的故事，故选B。
细节理解题，根据上文I’ll keep strong by playing my favorite sport, tennis, every day. 可知她将通过每天玩最喜欢的运动——网球来保持强壮。故选A。
细节理解题。A. Lily is good at making clothes.莉莉擅长做衣服。根据上文Maybe selling clothes is a good business for me.可知对她来说，卖衣服是件好买卖，而不是她擅长做衣服。所以此项说法错误；B. One of Bill’s parents is an animal doctor. 比尔的父母之一是动物医生。根据上文Bill的回答“My parents have kept lots of pets since I was little.”可知他的父母养过很多宠物，但不是动物医生，所以此项说法错误；C. Ryan enjoys meeting people on the Internet. 瑞安喜欢在网上见人们。根据上文Ryan 的回答“My hobbies are playing computer games and making friends online. We often share our funny stories by e-mail.”，可知他喜欢在网上交朋友，经常通过电子邮件分享有趣故事。所以此项说法正确，故选C。
Things You Can Do In One Second To Make Your Life Happier
One second. That’s all it takes to make your life happier. △ Then check out this list of things you can do in a single second. That will bring more happiness into your life every day.
Give a great big smile.
Look for an easy way to make your life happier. Smile more. Smiling can help you feel better instantly. And it can be contagious. So give a smile to a total stranger on the street. Or if you’re sad, angry, or annoyed about something, choose to smile and laugh it off instead.
Take a deep breath.
Deep breathing is one of the best ways to reduce stress and bring balance back into your life. And it only takes a second. Take some time out each day to focus on nothing except your breath. You’ll find your life becomes happier, healthier, and less stressful.
Take a sip of water.
It’s no surprise that drinking water is good for your health. Try keeping a water bottle with you wherever you go, and take a second to drink water a couple times every hour. Drinking water can help keep you hydrated, control calories, filter your kidneys, and keep healthy skin.
Happy people have this in common: They are grateful for all the good things in their lives. This means that to make your life happier, take a few minutes each day and count your blessings. Say “Thank you” more often. Show your appreciation when good things come your way.
|instantly 立刻 balance 平衡 focus 集中 hydrated 含水的
calorie 热量 filter 过滤 kidney 肾脏 skin 皮肤 grateful 感激
blessing 福分 appreciate 感激
9. Which can best replace “ △ ” in the passage?
A. Do you think so? B. Don’t believe it? C. Am I right?
10. What does the word “contagious” mean in Chinese?
A. 充满希望的 B. 滑稽的 C. 有感染力的
11. What can you do to keep healthy skin?
A. Take deep breath. B. Drink some water. C. Give thanks.
12. Which “second” in the following has the same meaning as in the passage?
A. Downstairs, on the second floor, Michael served Mona breakfast.
B. The gun was fired and Beaton was wounded a second time.
C. Can you just lift the table for a second?
【答案】9. B 10. C 11. B 12. C
推理判断题。根据上文One second. That’s all it takes to make your life happier可知，根据常识可知，一秒钟通常做不了什么事情，故此处说的一秒钟就能让生命更快乐，这一说法让人很难相信。B选项Don’t believe it?“不相信吗？”符合题意，故选B。
词句猜测题。根据第二段中” Smiling can help you feel better instantly.”可知微笑能让你立即感觉很好，根据下文“And it can be contagious. So give a smile to a total stranger on the street.”可知，笑容是会传染，所以在街上遇到陌生人也应该多笑一笑。C选项“有感染力的”符合题意，故选C。
细节理解题。根据原文“Drinking water can help keep you hydrated, control calories, filter your kidneys, and keep healthy skin.”可知，喝水可以保持皮肤健康。B选项Drink some water“喝水”符合题意，故选B。
词句猜测题。原文中“second”的意思是“一秒钟”，C选项Can you just lift the table for a second?“你能把桌子抬一下吗？”其中，second意为“一秒钟”，故选C。
Robert likes to take a walk in the park after work. One day when he was walking in the park, he heard a woman calling his name. He stopped to look around, but didn’t see anything except a little snake. Shortly after Robert saw it, it was gone.
Though Robert felt a little strange, he did not think about it too much and sat down for a rest on a bench in the park. Then he noticed the snake he had just seen climbing up the bench. Robert was too afraid to move away from the bench. Right at this moment, a woman behind him shouted, “Come here, Robert. You can’t stay on the bench like that. People will be worried by you.”
In surprise, Robert turned around and said to the woman, “Excuse me, but that’s not a very nice thing to say, and in fact some people say I’m handsome.”
“I’m not talking to you,” said the woman, “I’m telling Robert, my pet snake, to get down from the bench, not you.”
13. What did Robert see when he heard someone calling his name in the park?
A. Nothing. B. A snake. C. A woman.
14. How did Robert feel when he saw the snake climbing up the bench?
A. Happy. B. Excited. C. Scared.
15. Why did Robert turn around and say something to the woman?
A. He thought the woman was talking to him.
B. He felt ashamed for his had looking.
C. He thought he was not polite.
16. What is the best title for the story?
A. Two Roberts B. Be Polite to Me C. Sorry, I Made a Mistake
【答案】13. B 14. C 15. A 16. A
细节理解题。根据第一段中“He stopped to look around, but didn’t see anything except a little snake.”可知，当罗伯特听到有人叫他名字的时候，他看到了一条小蛇。故选B。
细节理解题。根据第二段中“Robert was too afraid to move away from the bench.”可知，当罗伯特看到那条蛇爬上长凳的时候，他感到很害怕。故选C。
细节理解题。根据最后一段中“I’m telling Robert, my pet snake, to get down from the bench, not you.”可知，这个女人的宠物蛇也叫罗伯特，所以当这位妇女对自己的宠物蛇说话的时候，罗伯特以为这个女人在叫他，所以他转过去和这个女人说话。故选A。
Happy, Happy Chinese New Year by Demi Hitz
In a book that is itself a celebration, Demi explains the ideas behind the Chinese New Year festival. The last 15 days of the old year are spent cleaning and preparing (Wash your hair and get a new haircut. Pay the debts that you owe and collect what is owed to you!). On the eve of the new moon, a special feast is prepared… The first 15 days of the New Year are spent celebrating with lion dances, firecrackers, and other activities.
Demi has long been interested in Eastern art and philosophy, which inspired her to create this book about the Chinese New Year celebration. She has written and illustrated more than 20 books for children, including The Empty Pot, Gandhi, and Kites: Magic Wishes that Fly Up to the Sky.
Chinese New Year for Kids by Cindy Roberts
Chinese New Year for Kids is a full color book with beautiful, Chinese illustrations. This is a hands-on workbook for parents and teachers, written for children from ages 3 to 12 years old, for use in the classroom or at home. Children will enjoy the Chinese New Year party ideas, dragon dances, lion dances, art projects, and Chinese games.
The art projects for Chinese New Year are designed to be easy, as well as inexpensive to reproduce for large groups. All the activities in this book have been tested in the classroom, with very successful results, and have caused lots of enthusiasm from children and teachers alike. Music, physical movement, art, and food all add to the ambiance of taking an imaginary trip to China during the Chinese New Year.
|debt 债 owe 欠 feast 宴会 philosophy 哲学
illustrate 插图 design 设计 enthusiasm 热情 ambiance 气氛
17. What is “Happy, Happy Chinese New Year”?
A. A book. B. A celebration. C. A festival.
18. What do Chinese usually do before the New Year?
A. They usually have a big meal every day.
B. They are busy cleaning and preparing.
C. They are celebrating with activities.
19. Who will most likely read the books by Demi?
A. Children from western countries.
B. Students from China.
C. Indian Children.
20. What will the readers most probably do after reading “Chinese New Year for Kids”?
A. They will join to write more books about China.
B. They will have a strong wish to visit China during Chinese New Year.
C. They will enjoy the Chinese New Year party ideas, dragon and lion dances.
【答案】17. A 18. B 19. A 20. B
细节理解题。根据文中“Happy, Happy Chinese New Year by Demi Hitz；In a book that is itself a celebration, Demi explains the ideas behind the Chinese New Year festival.”可知，Happy, Happy Chinese New Year是由黛米·希茨所写的一本书。故选A。
细节理解题。根据第一段中“The last 15 days of the old year are spent cleaning and preparing”可知，在新年到来之前，中国人忙着打扫和准备。故选B。
推理判断题。根据第二段中“Demi has long been interested in Eastern art and philosophy, which inspired her to create this book about the Chinese New Year celebration.”可知，黛米一直对东方艺术和哲学感兴趣，这本书是关于中国新年庆典的，而且她还写了其他面向孩子的书，所以西方的孩子们最有可能阅读这本书，去了解中国的春节。故选A。
推理判断题。根据最后一段中“Music, physical movement, art, and food all add to the ambiance of taking an imaginary trip to China during the Chinese New Year.”可知，音乐，身体运动，艺术和食物都增加了在中国新年期间去中国旅行的氛围，所以当作者读了这本书以后，他们将有一个强烈的愿望，在春节期间访问中国。故选B。
Kevin White is an 8-year-old boy from Salt Lake City. He started school two years ago but he has ____21____ been able to ride the school bus with the other kids. Because of a serious illness, he needs ____22____ care even on the way to school. His parents drive him to ____23____ each day.
When he heard that a service dog could allow him to ride the bus, he ____24____ to get one at once. However, his family didn’t have that much ____25____. So Kevin came up with an idea to raise money by selling ____26____.
After Kevin told his father what he ____27____, his father helped him grow vegetables in their yard. To let people know about Kevin’s ____28____ on September 26, Kevin’s dad wrote ____29____ article online, telling people what happened to Kevin and _____30_____ he wanted to do. The story touched many people’s hearts _____31_____ they wanted to lend Kevin a hand. In just a few weeks, Kevin’s vegetables were _____32_____. People even began giving _____33_____ own vegetables to Kevin to sell.
With the help of others, Kevin has _____34_____ over 21,000 dollars in all. Kevin said he would use the money to buy service dog and give the money left _____35_____ other children in need.
21. A. always B. often C. never
22. A. special B. strange C. usual
23. A. work B. school C. home
24. A. wanted B. went C. refused
25. A. food B. time C. money
26. A. fruit B. vegetables C. flowers
27. A. heard B. said C. thought
28. A. life B. story C. problem
29. A. a B. an C. the
30. A. what B. which C. that
31. A. and B. but C. or
32. A. put out B. given out C. sold out
33. A. our B. your C. their
34. A. sent B. raised C. donated
35. A. to B. for C. from
【答案】21. C 22. A 23. B 24. A 25. C 26. B 27. C 28. B 29. B 30. A 31. A 32. C 33. C 34. B 35. A
考查副词辨析及语境。always总是；often经常；never从不。根据下文“Because of a serious illness, he needs ____2____ care even on the way to school. His parents drive him to ____3____ each day.”可知，Kevin患有重病，需要照顾，他不能坐校车上学，他的父母开车送他上学。故选C。
考查名词辨析及语境。work工作；school学校；home家。根据上文“He started school two years ago but he has ____1____ been able to ride the school bus with the other kids.”可知，Kevin不能和其他孩子一起坐校车上学，因此这里应说的是父母送他去学校。故选B。
考查动词辨析及语境。wanted想要；went去；refused拒绝。根据下文“However, his family didn’t have that much ____5____ . So Kevin came up with an idea to raise money by selling ____6____ .”可知，Kevin想通过卖菜来筹集钱买一条服务犬，所以这里表示“想要……”，故选A。
考查名词辨析及语境。food食物；time时间；money钱。根据下句话“So Kevin came up with an idea to raise money by selling ____6____ .”，Kevin想要通过……来筹钱，所以这里是说他的家里没有太多钱。故选C。
考查名词辨析及语境。fruit水果；vegetables蔬菜；flowers花。根据下文“In just a few weeks, Kevin’s vegetables were ____12____ . People even began giving ____13____ own vegetables to Kevin to sell.”可知，Kevin想通过卖菜来筹钱。故选B。
考查动词辨析及语境。heard听到，听说；said说；thought想；思考。根据上文“So Kevin came up with an idea to raise money by selling ____6____ .”可知，Kevin想到了通过卖菜来筹钱，这里是他把自己的想法告诉了爸爸。故选C。
考查名词辨析及语境。life生活；story故事；problem问题。根据下文“The story touched many people’s hearts”可知，Kevin的爸爸把Kevin的故事写成了文章，这个故事打动了很多人。故选B。
考查连词辨析及语境。and和，而且；but但是；or或者；否则。根据句意可知，空前“…touched many people’s hearts”和空后“wanted to lead Kevin a hand”是承接关系，应用and连接，故选A。
考查动词短语辨析及语境。put out扑灭；given out分发；发出；精疲力竭；sold out卖完。根据文意“People even began giving ____13____ own vegetables to Kevin to sell.”可知，有了人们的帮助，Kevin的菜很快就卖完了。故选C。
考查动词辨析及语境。sent发送；寄；raised筹集；donated捐赠。根据上文“So Kevin came up with an idea to raise money by selling ____6____ .”可知，Kevin卖菜是为了筹钱买服务犬。故选B。
考查介词辨析及语境。to到；for了；因为；from从，来自。根据句子结构可知，这句话使用了give sth. to sb.这个短语，意为“把某物给某人”，故选A。
36.—Is that ________ (you) schoolbag?
—No, it isn’t.
37.They like pears, but they don’t like ________ (strawberry).
38.I am very busy ________ Friday.
39.—What is he doing?
—He ________ (use) the computer.
根据问句“What is he doing?”可知，时态要用现在进行时，结构是be doing，主语是he，所以be动词用is，use要变成using，故答案是is using。
40.The teacher asked Ben ________(answer) a question in class.
空格处所给参考单词为answer。ask sb. to do sth.为固定搭配，意为“叫某人去做某事”，符合句意，故答案为to answer。
41.The more you read, the ________ (fast) you will be.
42.He ________ (sit) down and began to read a newspaper.
43.I like dogs ________ they’re friendly and smart.
分析句子这是一个复合句，根据“they’re friendly and smart”可知，这是我喜欢狗的原因，所以本句是because引导的原因状语从句，故答案是because。
44.________ a clever boy he is!
45.The word “ginseng” comes from the ________ (China) word “ren-shen”.
46.—________ yogurt do you need?
—I need one cup of yogurt.
yogurt酸奶，不可数名词，根据“one cup of yogurt”可知，对“量的多少”进行提问，用how much，句首首字母大写，故答案是How much。
47.________ you go to the party, you’ll have a good time.
48.The telephone ________ (invent) by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
根据“in 1876”及“by Alexander Graham Bell”分析可知，本句考查的是一般过去时的被动语态，结构是was/were done；the telephone作主语，be动词用was，invent过去分词是invented，故答案是was invented。
49.Let’s visit the kids in hospital and cheer them ________.
根据句意和空前的cheer可知，这里考查的是短语cheer sb. up，意为“使某人振作起来，使高兴起来”。故答案为up。
50.That sweater ________ be Carla’s. Only she wears such colorful clothes.
根据“Only she wears such colorful clothes.”可知，这里是肯定猜测，这件毛衣一定是卡拉的，must一定，故答案是must。
Technology is developing fast and it has become an important part of our life. 1 那么未来的世界会是什么样子?
3-D food will be both delicious and nutritious. We can simply use3-D printers to print some basic materials. 2 Scientists believe that we just need to turn on a printer in the kitchen and then we can enjoy our favourite food.
3 5G网络将允许更多的人获得信息。 Big companies like China Mobile and China Unicom will start to offer 5G network. It is said that promises download speeds 10 to 20 times faster than 4G.
Underwater cities will provide more space. The earth is becoming more and more crowded. We may turn to underwater homes, which will be built as low as 15 kilometers below the sea.
4 Space tours will be a piece of cake. For us common people on the earth, the dream of travelling around space will come true. In the coming years, spacecrafts will be as popular as buses, trains and planes. We can leave our home and enter space to take a trip. And we will even get used to living there.
A robot will be a part of life. Robots can do many of the same things as we humans do, like driving cars. 5 But they will be used in other areas as well. They will be able to think and even tell the difference between right and wrong.
In a word, just as Jules Vemne said, “Anything one man can imagine, other men can make real.”
【答案】51. So what will the world be like in the future?
53. 5G networks will allow more people to get information.
分析句子可知，本句是一般将来时特殊疑问句，结构是：疑问词+will+主语+谓语+其他？so那么，句首首字母大写；what…be like……是什么样；the world世界；in the future未来。套入结构，故答案是So what will the world be like in the future?
分析句子可知，这是一个that引导的宾语从句，scientists believe科学家们认为；need to需要；turn on a printer in the kitchen打开厨房的打印机；enjoy our favourite food享用我们最爱的食物。故答案是科学家们认为，我们只需打开厨房里的打印机，然后就能享用我们最爱的食物。
分析句子可知，本句时态是一般将来时。结构：主语+will+动词原形+其他。5G networks 5G网络；allow sb. to do sth.允许某人做某事；more people更多的人；get information获得信息。故答案是5G networks will allow more people to get information.
分析句子可知，本句是一般将来时。space tours太空旅行；a piece of cake小菜一碟。故答案是：太空旅行将是小菜一碟。
分析句子可知，本句是一般将来时的被动语态。but 但是；be used in被用于；other areas其他领域；as well也。故答案是：但它们也将被用于其他领域。
My dear friends,
I’m writing to invite you to my new house in the country. You know, my family and I moved into our country house one month ago. The kids are planning to give a party at our new house. I hope all of you can come. The party will begin at 11:00 a.m. on Saturday. There will be lots of food and drinks.
Together with this letter is a map to our house. After you get off train, take the road in front of the station. Follow it and you’ll see a chicken farm. Don’t make any turns. Keep going and you’ll see a bridge. Cross the bridge and there will be a big tree on your left. Walk past the tree, take the first right turn, and then walk for five more minutes. You’ll see several houses. My house is at the end of the road, next to the river.
56. Why did Angelica invite her friends?
57. When will the party begin?
58. Is there a chicken farm near the train station?
59. Where does Angelica live, at P1, P2 or P3?
60. How will the kids feel at the party on Saturday?
【答案】56. Because they are planning to give a party at her new house.
57. The party will begin at 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.
58. Yes, there is.
59. P1. 60. They will feel happy at the party on Saturday.
根据You know, my family and I moved into our country house one month ago. The kids are planning to give a party at our new house，可知，安吉莉卡一个月前搬到了新房子，孩子们打算在新房子里开派对，所以安吉莉卡邀请朋友参加派对。故答案为Because they are planning to give a party at her new house.
根据The party will begin at 11:00 a.m. on Saturday，可知，派对在周六的上午11点开始，故答案为The party will begin at 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.
根据After you get off train, take the road in front of the station. Follow it and you’ll see a chicken farm，可知，在火车站附近有一个养鸡场，所以答案是肯定的，故答案为Yes, there is.
根据After you get off train, take the road in front of the station. Follow it and you’ll see a chicken farm. Don’t make any turns. Keep going and you’ll see a bridge. Cross the bridge and there will be a big tree on your left. Walk past the tree, take the first right turn, and then walk for five more minutes，可知，下了火车后，沿着车站前面马路一直走，会看到一个养鸡场，不要转弯继续走，会看到一座桥。走过这座桥，在左手边有一棵大树，走过这棵大树，在第一个路口右转，然后再走五分钟，根据这个路线，可推断，安吉莉卡住在P1，故答案为P1。
根据There will be lots of food and drinks，可知，派对上准备了许多食物和饮料，所以孩子们在派对上会感到很开心。故答案为They will feel happy at the party on Saturday.
61.假设你是Angelica的朋友Alan，请根据第二节(回答问题)材料并按照提示给Angelica回信：1. 恭喜乔迁并简单评述其新居。2. 回复能否参加聚会。3. 若能参加聚会，你会准备什么节目，对整个活动有什么建议等；若不能参会，说明原因，表达自己的心情等。注意：1. 80词以上，开头和结尾已经给出，不计入总词数；2. 不得出现人名和校名等真实信息。
I’m glad to receive your letter last time. First of all, congratulations on your settlement to the new house，which is so warm and comfortable that I’d like to have a look at once. The small independent garden is the best design in the house, and also a good place to relax. Secondly, I really appreciate your invitation of the housewarming party. I’d love to, but I can’t. As you know, the National Piano Grading Test is coming, my course schedule on these days is already full. I have to devote myself to the preparation until the end of the test. At last, it’s a great pity that I can’t come to your party. But I’ve prepared a gift for you and I hope you will like it.
May your party be a great success and enjoy yourself that day!
短语：be glad to；so…that…；would like (love) to；have a look；at once；have to；devote myself to；prepare for；the end of；enjoy yourself。
句型：First of all…Secondly…At last…；which引导的非限制性定语从句；so…that…引导的结果状语从句；and并列句；but并列复合句；As you know…；it’s +名词+ that从句。